Rules in writing numbers in a research paper

Use numerals for numbers from zero to nine that are followed by a precise unit of measurement or grouped together with a number that is larger than The samples measured 7 cm in diameter. However, only 3 of the 12 were usable. The main exception is if you are using a percentage to begin a sentence. In this case, use words to express the entire percentage. Thirteen percent of the patients reported that their symptoms improved after taking the experimental drug.

Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. If your paper includes quantitative research, you probably have data to report. Statistics, mathematical functions, ratios, and percentages are all written using numerals. This is true regardless of whether they are included within a table or as part of the actual text.

Keep the following guidelines in mind:. Also use numerals for precise ages, times, dates, scores, points on a scale, and amounts of money. The final score of Ghana 2, Brazil 1 did not represent a decisive victory. But: Most girls start reading when they are about five years old.

When to Spell Out Numbers in Writing (Guide + Examples)

The region has an average of One of the main reasons why writing numbers is complicated is that consistently applying the rules may lead to a text that actually seems very in consistent. Consider the following paragraphs:. By the time she was 9 years old, she was taller than half of the boys in her year. Five years later, she was still ranked 15 th. As 1 out of every 11 residents saw at least part of the play, this one event can definitely be considered a success.

When to Write Numbers in Words

If you are not required to strictly follow a particular style such as APA format , you may have some flexibility to modify the guidelines presented in this article. Just be sure to apply any modifications you make throughout your entire document.

Rule 2: Search and Re-search the Literature

She loves the challenge of finding the perfect formulation or wording and derives much satisfaction from helping students take their academic writing up a notch. A sentence starting with Twenty-four hours and later in a sentence, where it refers to the same thing, should it be 24 h? Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Generate your APA citations for free! Home Knowledge Base Academic writing Writing numbers: words and numerals.

Writing numbers: words and numerals Date published August 7, by Sarah Vinz. Spell out all numbers beginning a sentence. Examples: Twenty-three hundred sixty-one victims were hospitalized. Nineteen fifty-six was quite a year. Rule 2a. Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine. Examples: Forty-three people were injured in the train wreck. Twenty-seven of them were hospitalized. Rule 2b. Hyphenate all written-out fractions. Examples: We recovered about two-thirds of the stolen cash. One-half is slightly less than five-eighths.

Rule 3a.


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With figures of four or more digits, use commas. Count three spaces to the left to place the first comma. Continue placing commas after every three digits. Important : do not include decimal points when doing the counting. Note: Some choose not to use commas with four-digit numbers, but this practice is not recommended. Rule 3b. It is not necessary to use a decimal point or a dollar sign when writing out sums of less than a dollar. Better: He had only sixty cents.

How to write numbers in English - 6 common mistakes

OR He had only 60 cents. Rule 3c. Do not add the word "dollars" to figures preceded by a dollar sign. Rule 4a. For clarity, use noon and midnight rather than PM and AM. AM and PM are also written A.

Some put a space between the time and AM or PM. Examples: 8 AM P.

Example: 8AM P. For the top of the hour, some write PM , whereas others drop the and write 9 PM or 9 p. Rule 4b. Using numerals for the time of day has become widely accepted. Examples: The flight leaves at a. Please arrive by sharp. Examples: She takes the four thirty-five train. The baby wakes up at five o'clock in the morning. Rule 5.

Ashford Writing

Mixed fractions are often expressed in figures unless they begin a sentence. Five and one-half percent was the expected wage increase. Rule 6. The simplest way to express large numbers is usually best. Example: twenty-three hundred simpler than two thousand three hundred. Consistent: You can earn from one million to five million dollars. Inconsistent: You can earn from one million dollars to 5 million dollars.

Rule 7. Write decimals using figures. As a courtesy to readers, many writers put a zero in front of the decimal point. Examples: The plant grew 0.